In all of the "oscopies" described so far, the scope has been inserted through a natural opening in the body. However, in the following five types of "oscopies", an actual incision is made and the instrument is inserted into the body space that is to be examined.
Visual examination of the female pelvic viscera by means of an endoscope introduced through the posterior vaginal wall into that part of the pelvic cavity known as the rectovaginal pouch or cul de sac.
Examination of intra-abdominal structures by means of an illuminated tubular instrument (laparoscope) inserted through a small incision in the abdominal wall.
Examination of the mediastinum by means of a tubular instrument permitting direct inspection of the area between the lungs.
Direct examination of the pleural cavity by means of an endoscope which is inserted into the cavity through an intercostal space.