Review: Historical Background

Here is what we have learned from Historical Background:

  • In the 1950s and 1960s, the principal system for classifying diseases was the ICD series published by the World Health Organization (WHO).
  • ICD was used to code and tabulate the diagnoses on medical records for storage and retrieval, and Chapter II of ICD was always designated to neoplasms.
  • Since the publication of ICD-6 in 1948, the classification of neoplasms has been based primarily on topographic site and behavior.
  • The first code manual for the morphology of neoplasms was published by the American Cancer Society (ACS) in 1951 as the Manual of Tumor Nomenclature And Coding (MOTNAC).
  • The Systematized Nomenclature Of Pathology (SNOP), published by the College of American Pathologists (CAP) in the 1960s, provided a morphology code including two sections on neoplasms and a completely new, highly detailed topography code to cover every part of the human body.
  • A new edition of MOTNAC appeared in 1968, and the morphology section of MOTNAC had been based on the neoplasm section of SNOP published by the CAP. MOTNAC was widely accepted and translated into a number of languages.
  • In 1976, WHO published the first edition of the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, which had a topography section based on the malignant neoplasm rubrics of ICD-9 and a morphology section that was a one-digit expansion of the MOTNAC morphology.
  • The CAP adopted the morphology of ICD-O for their revised edition of SNOP which was called Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED).
  • The Second Edition of the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology was published by WHO in 1990 for use in cancer registries and in pathology and other departments specializing in cancer.
  • The Third Edition of ICD-O was published in 2000 and is intended to be used for cancer cases diagnosed on January 1, 2001 and forward.