Quiz: Staging Sources

  1. For most cancers, the report of the physical examination should include the location of tumor, including site and sub site, direct extension of the tumor to other organs or structures, and palpability and mobility of accessible lymph nodes.
  2. According to the Commission on Cancer (CoC) of the American College of Surgeons, the following terms are to be interpreted as evidence of tumor involvement: approaching, equivocal, possible, questionable, suggests, and very close to.
  3. The most common x-ray used for the diagnosis of breast cancer is the barium enema.
  4. KUB is used to examine the kidneys, ureters, and bladder.
  5. The CT scan gives an accurate picture of the extent of the disease and helps identify tumors at an early stage and it can only be performed with contrast media.
  6. An endoscopic exam involves using a instrument to examine internal passages or the inside of hollow organs or viscera, which can be effective in detecting lesions in the nasopharynx, larynx, esophagus, stomach, large bowel, bladder and parts of the lungs.
  7. Tumor markers are tumor-specific substances in the blood serum or other tissues that can assist in determining the presence or absence of cancer.
  8. The estrogen receptor assay (ERA) and the progesterone receptor assay (PRA) help in the determination of prognosis and the management of breast cancer patients.
  9. In pathologic exams, cells examined are usually obtained from fluid far away from the suspected site of cancer but tissues examined are usually removed from the primary or metastatic site of a cancer.
  10. The pathology report contains the histologic type of cancer and the grade of the tumor; grade is normally expressed as Grade I through III or as well differentiated, moderately differentiated, and poorly differentiated, respectively.