Spread to adjacent tissues or organs; regional lymph nodes; sites of distant organs or lymph nodes involved.
Imaging studies are primarily performed for patients with stage III or stage IV disease.
- Chest X-Ray
Patients with advanced disease or local recurrence should have a chest x-ray due to the fact that the lungs often are the first site of distant metastasis.
- Chest CT scan
A chest CT scan should be included in the staging workup of a patient with advanced disease to detect asymptomatic metastases.
- Imaging, Abdomen/pelvis
Abdomen: A CT scan of the abdomen often is obtained when evaluating a patient with advanced or locally recurrent disease. Pelvis: A CT scan of the pelvis is indicated only if a patient has local regional recurrence below the waist, is symptomatic, or has known metastatic disease with a history of primary tumors below the waist.
- Imaging, Bone
- Imaging, Brain
A CT scan or MRI of the brain should be obtained during the workup of a patient with known distant metastases to detect additional asymptomatic metastatic disease.
- Imaging, Liver/spleen
For more information about imaging, you may visit the following pages in the Diagnostic Tests module: Other Imaging.