SEER Training Modules

Lab Tests

Alkaline Phosphate

Also called:
Alk phos, alk f, ALP. May be included in blood chemistry screening panel. Normal range: 20-90 I.U./liter. Normal range may vary somewhat according to the brand of laboratory assay materials used.

BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen)

Chemistry study of blood serum to measure the level of urea in the blood, a sign of impaired kidney function or urinary obstruction. Normal range: 10-15 mg/100 ml.

CBC (Complete Blood Count) with Platelets

Consists of several tests on blood serum. The platelet count is usually ordered separately. The table which follows indicates the portions of the CBC relevant to malignancies. If one or more of the starred items is outside of the normal values, the CBC is considered abnormal.

Test Normal Values
* White Blood Count (WBC)
Differential whitecell count (diff)
5,000-10,000 total WBC
Neutrophils PMNs, polys, 60-70% total WBC
segsEosinophils 1-4% total leukocyte count
Basophils 0.5-1% total leukocyte count
Monocytes 2-6% total leukocyte count
Lymphocytes 20-40% total leukocyte count
* Red Blood Count(RBC) 3.6-5.0 million/ (F)
4.2-5.4 million/ (M)
* Hematocrit (Hct) 37-47%
* Hemoglobin (Hgb) 12-16 g/100 ml. (F)
14-18 g/100 ml. (M)
Red Blood CellIndices  
Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) 87-103 cu.micrograms/red cell
Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH) 27-32 picograms
Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) 32-36%
Stained Red CellExamination Normocytic, normochromic
* Platelet Count 150,000-300,000/

Chemistry Screening Panel

Also called:
Blood chemistries, SMA-12, SMAC-6, ACA, MSSP, and many other names, usually based on the piece of equipment in use. The blood chemistry panel consists of 12 to 20 tests:

Test Normal Values
Total protein (TP) 6-8 g/dl
Albumin (Alb.) 4-4.5 g%
Calcium (CA+) Total: 9-11 mg/dl
Inorganic phosphorus (Inor. Phos.) 2.5-4.8 mg/dl
Cholesterol (Chol) 150-330 mg/dl (age 40-59)
Glucose (Glu) 70-100 mg/dl (fasting serum)
Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) 10-15 mg/100 ml
Uric acid 2.2-7 mg/dl (F)
4.2-8 mg/100 ml (M)
Creatinine (Creat.) 0.6-1 mg/dl (F)
0.8-1.7 mg/100 ml (M)
Total Bilirubin (T. Bili.) 0.3-1.3 mg/dl
Alkaline Phosphatase (Alk. Phos) 20-90 I U/liter
Aspartate transaminase (AST or SGOT) 5-40 Sigma-Frankel u/ml OR
0-36 IU/ltr (lower in women)

Fecal Occult Blood

Identifies presence of blood in stool; reported as positive or negative Also called: Guaiac, Hematest, Occultest, Hemoccult, Benzidine, or Orthotoluidine test.

Histochemistry of Bone Marrow

Pathologic examination of bone marrow biopsy specimen using special staining techniques to determine subclassification of the leukemia. Histochemistry of the bone marrow is a laboratory study performed in addition to the standard histologic analysis of the specimen.

I-131 Uptake Test

Measures ability of thyroid gland to accumulate, concentrate and retain iodine; usually done at same time as a thyroid scan. Normal values: 1%-13% absorbed by thyroid after 2 hours; 2-25% absorbed after 6 hours; 15-45% absorbed after 24 hours. Used primarily to rule out a variety of benign conditions.

Liver Function Tests

A series of blood chemistry tests measuring enzymes excreted by the liver during abnormal functioning due to metastases, obstruction or other conditions. Also called: liver panel. A liver panel may contain any of the following tests. If any one of these tests is outside the normal range of values, the test should be reported as abnormal.

Test Normal Values
Alkaline Phosphatase (Alk.Phos.) 20-90 IU/liter
Lactic Dehydrogenase (LDH) 100-190 u/L at 37 degrees
SGOT 4-35 u/L (F)
8-46 u/L (M)
SGPT 4-35 u/L (F)
7-46 u/L (M)
Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) 75-185 u/ml (F)
80-200 Goldbarg-Rutenburg u/ml (M)
Bilirubin (total) < 1.5 mg/dl

Renal Function Tests

Urine chemistry tests to measure the output of the kidneys.

Test Normal Values
Albumin (protein) 2-8 mg/dl


See Tumor Markers section.


Also called:
UA, random specimen, clean catch. Collection of urine to evaluate for blood, infection, or other urinary tract problems.