Monitoring levels of tumor and indicating a recurrence.
Liver Function Tests (Pancreas, liver, gallbladder, bile ducts)
A series of blood chemistry tests measuring enzymes excreted by the liver during abnormal functioning due to metastases, obstruction or other conditions. Also called: liver panel. A liver panel may contain any of the following tests. If any one of these tests is outside the normal range of values, the test should be reported as abnormal.
|Alkaline Phosphatase (AIk.Phos.)||20 90 11.1/liter|
|Lactic Dehydrogenase (LDH)||100 190 a/L at 37 degrees|
|SGOT||8 46. a/L (M)
4 35 a/L (F)
|SGPT||7 46 a/L (M)
4 35 a/L (F)
|Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP)||80 200 Goldbarg Rutenburg a/ml (M)
75 185 a/ml (F)
Bilirubin (total) < 1.5 mg/dl
Alpha fetoprotein (Liver) A serum test used as a tumor marker for hepatocellular cancer. Elevated alphafetoprotein levels are also found in certain ovarian and testicular cancers. Note: Observe the date of an alphafetoprotein study carefully. Record a pre operative study only. Alpha fetoprotein is also used as a marker postoperatively to monitor residual tumor. Also called: aFP, AFP, alpha fetoglobulin.
Normal range: Adults: < 15 ng/ml.
a HCG (Alpha Subunit Human Chorionic Gonadotropin) (Pancreas) a nonspecific marker for pancreatic, pituitary, and placental tumors; elevated levels may be present in pancreatic cancer
a TSH (Alpha Subunit Thyroid Stimulating Hormone) (Pancreas) a marker that can differentiate pancreatic from other hormonal tumors; nonspecific also found in pituitary and placental tumors .
CEA (Carcinoembryonic Antigen) (Pancreas, liver) a blood test measuring the presence of an antigen in malignancies arising in entodermal (embryonic) or gastrointestinal tissue. CEA assay is nonspecific for identifying a primary site, but it does indicate the presence of malignancy. Smokers may have an elevated CEA without malignant disease. Normal range: < 2.5 ng/ml. Normal range may vary somewhat according to institutional experience. Levels > 10 ng/ml suggest extensive disease and levels > 20 ng/ml suggest metastatic disease.
CA 19 9 (Cancer Antigen 19 9) (Pancreas, liver) monitors post therapeutic gastrointestinal cancer for recurrence; nonspecific to stomach cancer.
CA 195 (Cancer Antigen 195) (Pancreas) detects gastrointestinal cancers; changing level indicates progression or regression of tumor load; nonspecific to stomach cancer.
Gastrin (Pancreas) differentiates gastrin secreting non beta islet cell.tumors; levels above 1000 pg/ml are diagnostic of gastrinoma; also found in some benign conditions.
Glucagon (Pancreas) differentiates alpha cell tumors; levels above 900 are diagnostic of glucagonoma; also present in diabetes and other conditions.
Pancreatic Polypeptide (Pancreas) diagnoses pancreatic gamma cell tumors; elevated in APUD omas, VIPomas, and MEN (Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia).
Proinsulin C peptide (Pancreas) differentiates cell type for endocrine secreting tumors; elevated in insulinoma and islet cell tumors.
Click here to view the Tumor Markers page of the Diagnostic Tests module for more information.