- Socioeconomic status: incidence higher in lower socioeconomic groups.
- Place of residence: incidence higher in urban populations.
- Age: people between 60 and 80 years of age.
- Gender: men (slightly more common than in women).
- Race: African-Americans (slightly more common than in Caucasians).
- Life style: smoking and alcoholism.
- Industrial chemicals: workers exposed to solvents and petroleum compounds.
- Family history: people with a history of pancreatic cancer in a close family member.
- Hepatitis B and C: people with a history of chronic liver disease, particularly cirrhosis that results from chronic hepatitis B or C infections or alcoholism.
- Known carcinogens: nitrosamines, polyvinylchloride, thorotrast, aflatoxins.
- Age: people in late middle age or older.
- People with nutritional deficiencies, or hemochromatosis (excessive iron deposits in the body's tissues).
Gallbladder and Bile Duct Cancers
- Age: people are 60 to 70.
- Gender: more common in men.
- People with a history of gallstones.
- Sclerosing cholangitis.