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Risk Factors

Pancreatic Cancer

  • Socioeconomic status: incidence higher in lower socioeconomic groups.
  • Place of residence: incidence higher in urban populations.
  • Age: people between 60 and 80 years of age.
  • Gender: men (slightly more common than in women).
  • Race: African-Americans (slightly more common than in Caucasians).
  • Life style: smoking and alcoholism.
  • Industrial chemicals: workers exposed to solvents and petroleum compounds.
  • Family history: people with a history of pancreatic cancer in a close family member.

Liver Cancer

  • Hepatitis B and C: people with a history of chronic liver disease, particularly cirrhosis that results from chronic hepatitis B or C infections or alcoholism.
  • Known carcinogens: nitrosamines, polyvinylchloride, thorotrast, aflatoxins.
  • Age: people in late middle age or older.
  • People with nutritional deficiencies, or hemochromatosis (excessive iron deposits in the body's tissues).

Gallbladder and Bile Duct Cancers

  • Age: people are 60 to 70.
  • Gender: more common in men.
  • People with a history of gallstones.
  • Sclerosing cholangitis.