Anatomy of the Liver & Gallbladder
The liver is the largest internal organ in the body. A primary liver cancer is uncommon; most liver tumors are metastatic. The liver is divided into two lobes, right (larger) and left.
- Right lobe of liver
- Left lobe of liver
- Round ligament
- Caudate lobe of liver
- Inferior vena cava
- Common bile duct
- Hepatic artery
- Portal vein
- Cystic duct
- Hepatic duct
- Porta hepatis: central region of liver which contains the hepatic artery, portal vein, lymphatic vessels, and extrahepatic bile ducts (referred to as portal area).
- Bile: fluid produced in the liver which aids in digestion.
The gallbladder is a sac like organ; tumor extent is determined by invasion through the wall. The gallbladder lies under the liver and frequently (70 %) invades the liver by direct extension.
The gallbladder wall lacks the thick muscular layers of the bowel wall, but still has a mucosa, lamina propria, smooth muscle, and serosa (except on hepatic surface).
- Fundus: the fullest, most distal part of the gallbladder.
- Body: the area between the fundus and the neck of the bladder.
- Neck: tapers into cystic duct.
Ampulla of Vater
A dilated duct less than 1.5 cm in length below the pancreas which empties into duodenum.
Intrahepatic bile ducts in portal area between hepatic lobes, draining hepatic lobules.
Extrahepatic bile ducts:
- Common hepatic duct formed by junction of right and left hepatic bile ducts.
- Cystic duct connects common hepatic duct with gallbladder.
- Common bile duct formed by junction of cystic duct and common hepatic duct.