Cell type; depth of invasion (mucosa, submucosa, muscular layer, perivesical fat, serosa and connective tissue); size of lesion; adjacent tissue involved (prostate, urethra, parametrium); involvement of regional lymph nodes; multifocal tumors; invasion of papillary stalk
Cytologic examination of urinary sediment for malignant cells; fine needle aspiration of a cyst or tumor (detects 70% of bladder cancers); also pleural effusion (thoracentesis) or ascites (paracentesis)
Instillation of saline solution into the bladder. After the solution is allowed to contact surfaces in the area for about five minutes, it is aspirated and sent for cytologic examination.
Go to the Pathology page of the Diagnostic Tests module for more information.