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Layers of Renal & Ureteral Walls

Mucous membrane (mucosa)
transitional epithelium; lines the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra.

Epithelial layer
contains no blood vessels or lymphatics.

Basement membrane
lies beneath the epithelial layer; single layer of cells separating the epithelial layer from the lamina propria; a sheet of extracellular material serving as a filtration barrier and supporting structure for the mucosal layer.

Submucous coat (lamina propria)
areolar connective tissue; interlaced with the muscular coat. This layer contains blood vessels, nerves, and in some regions, glands. A tumor which has spread to this layer can metastasize to the rest of the body via the lymphatics and blood vessels.

Muscular coat (muscularis propria)
three layers: inner longitudinal, middle circular, and outer longitudinal.

Adventitia
in areas on kidney and ureter where there is no serosa, the connective tissue between organs merges to become adventitia.

Key words:

Regional diathesis, field defect
terms which mean a tendency for the lining of the urinary tract to develop multiple tumors; a generalized deterioration of the urothelium from the renal pelvis into the urethra showing premalignant changes. There is a 75% likelihood of subsequent bladder cancer with a diagnosis of diffuse upper urinary tract diathesis (involving both renal pelvis and ureter).