Review: Anatomy of Colon and Rectum

Here is what we have learned from Anatomy of Colon and Rectum:

  • The entire colon is about 5 feet (150 cm) long and is divided into five major segments. The rectum is the last anatomic segment before the anus.
  • The right colon consists of the cecum, ascending colon, hepatic flexure and the right half of the transverse colon.
  • The left colon consists of the left half of the transverse colon, splenic flexure, descending colon, and sigmoid.
  • Regional lymph nodes include:
    • Ileocolic lymph nodes
    • Pericolic lymph nodes
    • Presacral lymph nodes
    • Retrocecal lymph nodes
    • Inferior mesenteric lymph nodes
    • Superior rectal lymph nodes
  • Major components of bowel wall are:
    • Lumen
    • Mucosa
    • Submucosa
    • Muscularis propria
    • Subserosa
    • Serosa (visceral peritoneum)