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Risk Factors

  • Orchiopexy: surgical placement of an undescended testis. The risk factor here is the scrotal surgery, not the procedure itself.
  • Age: most common in young adults 20-40 years
  • Race: whites are 6 times more likely to develop testicular cancer than blacks
  • Vasectomy: surgical separation of the seminal vesicles for contraception. The risk factor here is the scrotal surgery, not the vasectomy.
  • Testicular trauma: crushing injury, blunt trauma (such as getting kneed in the groin) and other accidental injuries; risk of cancer is not known but is under investigation.
  • Other: Orchitis (inflammation of the testicle); irradiation
  • Men with a history of hernia
  • Men with extra nipples
  • Men with a history of infertility problems
  • Men with cryptorchidism or undescended testes—the failure of one or both testicles to descend from the pelvis (about 10 percent of men with testicular cancer have a history of cryptorchidism)