Surgery (Esophagus & Small Intestine)
Operative treatment of esophageal cancer carries up to a 40% mortality rate and 10% five-year survival. Surgery is most effective for esophageal cancers in the distal half. Maintaining nutrition is extremely important; however, esophageal feeding tubes, colonic interpositioning, and feeding [glossary term:] gastrostomies are each accompanied by high morbidity.
Laser surgery can help to maintain an open passageway for nutrition.
For carcinoid tumors less than 1 cm in diameter, local resection is the treatment of choice. If the tumor is larger than 1 cm, the resection should include regional lymph nodes from the mesentery.
X = complete
* = partial
o = optional
• = see note under procedure
|Types of Surgery||Lesion||Stomach
|[glossary term:] Cryosurgery||*|
|[glossary term:] Cautery, [glossary term:] fulguration (without specimen)||*|
|Laser surgery with specimen||*/X|
|Excision of lesion||*|
|Partial/simple surgical removal, primary site no lymph node dissection||X|
|Partial/simple surgical removal, primary site with lymph node dissection||X||X|
|Debulking procedure (so stated) with or without lymph node dissection||X||*/°||°|
|Radical surgery, primary site||X||X||°|
|Surgery of regional/distant sites/nodes only||°|