- Age: most common in 50-70 year age range
- Gender: more frequent in men than women (2:1)
- Race: more frequent in whites than in blacks
- Smoking: high frequency in heavy smokers
- Location: the lateral walls of the bladder are more frequently involved by tumor than is the trigone
- Occupation: Rubber and leather industries, painter, chemical worker, printer, metal worker, hairdresser, textile worker, machinist, truck driver
- Industrial aniline dyes, benzidine, 2-maphthylamine, 4-aminobiphenyl (which presently has no commercial use in the United States, although it was formerly used as a rubber antioxidant, a dye intermediate, a research chemical, and in the detection of sulfates)
- Chronic bladder infections with schistosoma hematobium
- Pelvic irradiation
- Prior chemotherapy with cytoxan
Studies (1980) showed that people who use artificial sweeteners do not appear to have a higher incidence of bladder cancer than that of non-users.
The period of time from exposure to development of cancer can be as long as 6-20 years.