Review: Introduction to the Respiratory System
Here is what we have learned from Introduction to the Respiratory System:
- The entire process of respiration includes ventilation, external respiration, transport of gases, internal respiration, and cellular respiration.
- The three pressures responsible for pulmonary ventilation are atmospheric pressure, intraalveolar pressure, and intrapleural pressure.
- A spirometer is used to measure respiratory volumes and capacities. These measurements provide useful information about the condition of the lungs.
- The frontal, maxillary, ethmoidal, and sphenoidal sinuses are air-filled cavities that open into the nasal cavity.
- The pharynx, commonly called the throat, is a passageway that extends from the base of the skull to the level of the sixth cervical vertebra.
- The larynx, commonly called the voice box, is the passageway for air between the pharynx above and the trachea below.
- The trachea, commonly called the windpipe, is the main airway to the lungs.
- The trachea divides into the right and left primary bronchi, which branch into smaller and smaller passageways until they terminate in tiny air sacs called alveoli.
- The two lungs contain all the components of the bronchial tree beyond the primary bronchi.
- The right lung is shorter, broader, and is divided into three lobes.
- The left lung is longer, narrower, and is divided into two lobes.